Waspada Parasit Malaria Kebal Obat Yang Mampir Asia Tenggara

BERITA RAKYAT – Waspada parasit malaria resisten obat menghampiri Asia Tenggara secara agresif. Resistensi disebabkan oleh tingkat kegagalan pengobatan utama yang sangat tinggi.

 

Studi ganda yang diterbitkan dalam jurnal The Lancet Infectious Diseases mengungkapkan, parasit telah menyebar di beberapa negara seperti Thailand, Viernam, dan Kamboja. Melansir AFP sebanyak 80 persen parasit yang paling banyak menyerang pada saat ini dinyatakan kebal terhadap obat.

 

Di antaranya adalah parasit Plasmodium falciparum. Infeksi parasit ini berisiko tinggi menimbulkan kematian. Parasit ini dinyatakan kebal terhadap salah satu kombinasi obat ‘terobosan baru’ dan yang disebut-sebut paling ampuh.

“Temuan ini juga menunjukkan bahwa resistensi parasit telah memburuk di Asia Tenggara sejak 2015,” ujar pemimpin penelitian, Olivo Miotto dari Oxford University.

Miotto mengatakan, parasit malaria resisten ini tak menutup kemungkinan menginvasi wilayah lain dan memperoleh sifat genetis baru.

Kombinasi obat yang dikenal dengan DHA-PPQ mulanya efektif melawan parasit. Namun, efektivitas itu terjamin saat tanda resistensi belum muncul pada 2013 lalu.

DHA-PPQ diketahui mengalami kegagalan mencapai 53 persen di barat daya Vietnam dan 87 persen di timur laut Thailand.

Sebanyak lebih dari 200 juta orang terinfeksi parasit Plasmodium falciparum. Parasit ini menyumbang 9 dari 10 kematian secara global.

Resistensi serupa pernah terjadi pada 1980-an. Obat racikan lama, Kloroquin, tak ampuh melawan parasit dan menyebabkan jutaan kematian di seluruh Afrika.

Belum Menyebar ke Indonesia

Kendati parasit disebut telah menyebar ke Asia Tenggara, namun kasus ini tak sampai ke Indonesia. Hal ini ditegaskan oleh Direktur Pencegahan dan Pengendalian Penyakit Tular Vektor dan Zoonotik Kementerian Kesehatan, Siti Nadia Tarmizi.

“Ada banyak faktor terkait terjadinya resistensi, seperti pengobatan yang tidak standar, tidak teratur, pasien tidak minum obat lengkap, dan adanya obat malaria yang dijual bebas,” kata Nadia saat dihubungi CNNIndonesia.com, Rabu (24/7).

Nadia mengatakan, pihak Kemenkes akan tetap mengantisipasi kemungkinan menyebarkan parasit malaria resisten. Kemenkes akan melakukan monitoring resistensi terhadap obat anti-malaria (OAM). Kemenkes juga menjamin, obat malaria tak akan dijual bebas. Obat hanya bisa didapat melalui puskesmas dan rumah sakit. {le}

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