Vaksin Influenza Penting Untuk Dilakukan Setahun Sekali

BERITA RAKYAT – Ketika seseorang mendapatkan vaksin influenza, vaksin yang ada di ini ternyata hanya dapat bertahan selam kurang lebih setahun. Lama tidaknya pengaruh vaksin influenza pada tubuh seseorang ini yang sangat dipengaruhi oleh mutasi virus.


Ini karena sering terjadi mutasi virus, yang disebabkan adanya antigenicdrift atau mutasi minor (ringan) pada saat virus influenza melakukan replika sehingga bersirkulasi virus galur yang baru. Galur virus merupakan satu generasi keturunan. Di dalam hal ini istilah yang sering digunakan yakni tipe atau stain virus.


“oleh karena itu, vaksin influenza perlu dilakukan secara rutin setiap tahun. Untuk efektivitasnya, vaksin influenza membutuhkan waktu kurang lebih dua minggu di dalam proses membentuk antibiotik setelah vaksin dilakukan, kata ketua indonesia influenza foundation (IIF), CIssy B Kartasasmita.


Efektivitas vaksinasi juga bergantung pada galur dalam vaksin influenza. Sebab galur virus influenza dapat berubah di setiap tahun.


Hal tersebut menjadi latar belakang Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO) mengeluarkan rekomendasi tahunan komposisi galur virus influenza. Ada dua galur virus influenza, yaitu Northern Hemisphere (NH) dan Southern Hemisphere (SH).


Seiring perkembangan teknologi kesehatan akhirnya memungkinkan 4 galur virus, yaitu 2 galur A dan 2 galur B, yang terdapat dalam satu vaksin influenza. Vaksin ini dikenal dengan nama vaksin influenza kuadrivalen, dalam laporan The need for quadrivalent vaccine against seasonal influenza (2010).


Data Indonesia Total Market Audit Q1 2017 menunjukkan, jumlah vaksinasi influenza yang dilakukan masyarakat Indonesia masih tergolong rendah. Cakupannya hanya berkisar 500.000 dosis vaksin per tahun.


Jika ditinjau dari sisi kelompok berisiko, cakupan vaksinasi influenza di kalangan petugas kesehatan di Indonesia pun masih terbilang rendah bila dibandingkan dengan Singapura, Korea Selatan dan Thailand.


Negara-negara tersebut mewajibkan vaksinasi influenza secara rutin setiap tahun untuk melindungi petugas kesehatan serta mencegah penularan influenza kepada pasien.


Vaksinasi influenza merupakan cara pencegahan yang terbukti efektif. Vaksinasi influenza ini efektif memberikan perlindungan hingga 90 persen bagi seseorang yang menerima vaksin dalam kondisi sehat, berusia kurang dari 65 tahun,” tandas Cissy. {le}

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